A Scholarly Review of Critics on the Sufism and Related Terminologies

تصوف اورمتعلقہ اصطلاحات پرتنقیدات کاعلمی جائزہ


  • Dr. Muhammad Akram Assistant Professor, Government College of Technology, Pindi Bhattian, Hafizabad.
  • Muhammad Saad Visiting Lecturer, Government College University Faisalabad, Hafizabad Campus.


Sufism, Critics, Islamic Spirituality, Scholarly Inquiry, Etymological Roots


Critics of Sufism have engaged in a meticulous examination of various facets within the domain, including the terminology associated with Ṣūfī practices and figures. Specifically, scrutiny has been directed towards terms such as "Ṣūfī","Sufism" the instructional tenets of Sufism, and even historical encounters such as those between Ḥasan Baṣrī and Ḥaḍrat ‘Alī.  Central to this critique is the contention that the term "Sufism" is a construct of uncertain origin, purportedly borrowed from the Greek lexicon. This prompts a scholarly inquiry into its etymological roots to discern whether it indeed stems from Hellenistic sources or if its formulation can be attributed to Ṣūfī intellectuals themselves. Moreover, an investigation ensues to delineate any linguistic, semantic, or conceptual overlaps between this term and its purported Greek origins. Furthermore, critics have scrutinized the application of the term "Ṣūfī" positing that it lacked prevalence during the early epochs of Ṣūfī history. This prompts a scholarly exploration into historical records to ascertain the veracity of claims regarding its absence or emergence within early Ṣūfī discourse. In parallel, the instructional doctrines of Sufism have been subjected to critical examination. Critics contend that the foundational principles and doctrinal seeds of Sufism were absent during pivotal periods such as the prophetic era and the epoch of the companions. Consequently, scholarly inquiry is warranted to discern the accuracy of these assertions and to delineate the historical evolution of Ṣūfī teachings. Through rigorous scholarly inquiry and analysis, these criticisms aim to elucidate and contextualize the historical development and conceptual underpinnings of Sufism, contributing to a nuanced understanding of its evolution within the broader landscape of Islamic spirituality.




How to Cite

Dr. Muhammad Akram, & Muhammad Saad. (2024). A Scholarly Review of Critics on the Sufism and Related Terminologies: تصوف اورمتعلقہ اصطلاحات پرتنقیدات کاعلمی جائزہ . Al-Mithaq ( Research Journal of Islamic Theology), 3(01), 51–65. Retrieved from https://almithaqjournal.org/index.php/home/article/view/72